Researchers have refined these rats’ habitat by providing bedding material, shelter, and a chew toy. Image © Understanding Animal Research.
In 1959, William Russell and Rex Burch published The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. In it they suggested that researchers can make their experiments more humane by taking the following steps:
Researchers practice reduction, refinement, and replacement as much as possible but sometimes animal research is the only way to answer a particular scientific question.